Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2016
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, the unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments necessary for the fair statement of the balances and results for the periods presented. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the Company’s annual financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted. These condensed consolidated financial statement results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full fiscal year or any future period.
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures have been prepared with the presumption that users of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have read or have access to the audited consolidated financial statements for the preceding fiscal year. Accordingly, these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s Form 10-K, which was filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 15, 2016, from which the Company derived the balance sheet data at December 31, 2015.
The Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries: Innmune Limited, Coronado SO, Cyprium Therapeutics, Inc., Escala, JMC, CB Securities Corporation, Avenue, Checkpoint, Mustang and Helocyte. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
The preparation of the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period.
Use of Estimates
The Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include certain amounts that are based on management’s best estimates and judgments. The Company’s significant estimates include, but are not limited to, useful lives assigned to long-lived assets, fair value measurements, stock-based compensation, common stock issued to acquire licenses, investments, accrued expenses, provisions for income taxes and contingencies. Due to the uncertainty inherent in such estimates, actual results may differ from these estimates.
Fair Value Measurement
The Company follows accounting guidance on fair value measurements for financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis. Under the accounting guidance, fair value is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability.
The accounting guidance requires that fair value measurements be classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1:
Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: 
Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices for similar assets or liabilities that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.
Level 3: 
Unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity and that are financial instruments whose values are determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques, as well as instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant judgment or estimation.
The fair value hierarchy also requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires management to make judgments and consider factors specific to the asset or liability.
Certain of the Company’s financial instruments are not measured at fair value on a recurring basis, but are recorded at amounts that approximate their fair value due to their liquid or short-term nature, such as accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities. The carrying value of the amount owed to Ovamed GmbH (“Ovamed”) upon the acquisition of certain manufacturing rights in December 2012 under the amendment to the Company’s sublicense agreement with Ovamed has been recorded at its net present value, which approximates its fair value. The amounts due to Ovamed are included in current liabilities at June 30, 2016 and at December 31, 2015 on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets (see Note 9).
Segment Reporting
Effective April 1, 2016, consistent with the increase in JMC’s operations, the Company now operates in two operating and reportable segments, Dermatology Product Sales and Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Product Development. The chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”) is the Company’s Chief Executive Officer. There are no significant inter-segment sales. The Company evaluates the performance of each segment based on operating profit or loss. There is no inter-segment allocation of interest expense and income taxes.  
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents at June 30, 2016 and at December 31, 2015 consisted of cash, money market funds and certificates of deposit in institutions in the United States. Balances at certain institutions have exceeded Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits and U.S. government agency securities.
Property and Equipment
Office equipment is recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of each asset. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the term of the respective leases.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets, including property and equipment, for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable. Factors that the Company considers in deciding when to perform an impairment review include significant underperformance of the business in relation to expectations, significant negative industry or economic trends, and significant changes or planned changes in the use of the assets. If an impairment review is performed to evaluate a long-lived asset for recoverability, the Company compares forecasts of undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the long-lived asset to its carrying value. An impairment loss would be recognized when estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of an asset are less than its carrying amount. The impairment loss would be based on the excess of the carrying value of the impaired asset over its fair value, determined based on discounted cash flows.
Restricted Cash 
The Company records cash held in trust or pledged to secure certain debt obligations as restricted cash. As of June 30, 2016, the Company has $14.6 million of restricted cash collateralizing a note payable of $14.0 million (see Note 8) and a pledge to secure a letter of credit in connection with a new lease of $0.6 million.
Inventories comprise finished goods, which are valued at the lower of cost or market, on a first-in, first-out basis. The Company evaluates the carrying value of inventories on a regular basis, taking into account anticipated future sales compared with quantities on hand, and the remaining shelf life of goods on hand.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable consists of amounts due to the Company for product sales from JMC. The Company’s accounts receivable reflects discounts for early payment and for product returns.
Investments at Fair Value
The Company elects the fair value option for its long-term investments at fair value (see Note 4). The decision to elect the fair value option, which is irrevocable once elected, is determined on an instrument-by-instrument basis and applied to an entire instrument. The net gains or losses, if any, on an investment for which the fair value option has been elected are recognized as a change in fair value of investments on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company has various processes and controls in place to ensure that fair value is reasonably estimated. While the Company believes its valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different estimate of fair value at the reporting date.
Fair Value Option
As permitted under the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 825, Financial Instruments, (“ASC 825”), the Company has elected the fair value option to account for its Helocyte convertible notes that were issued during the quarter ended June 30, 2016. In accordance with ASC 825, the Company records these convertible notes at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations. As a result of applying the fair value option, direct costs and fees related to the Helocyte convertible notes were recognized in earnings as incurred and were not  deferred.
Accounting for Warrants at Fair Value
The Company classifies as liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net-cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the control of the Company) or (ii) give the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement).
The fair value of warrants that include price protection reset provision features are deemed to be “down-round protection” and, therefore, do not meet the scope exception for treatment as a derivative under ASC 815 “Derivatives and Hedges”, since “down-round protection” is not an input into the calculation of the fair value of warrants and cannot be considered “indexed to the Company’s own stock” which is a requirement for the scope exception as outlined under ASC 815. The accounting treatment of derivative financial instruments requires that the Company record the warrants at their fair values as of the inception date of the agreement and at fair value as of each subsequent balance sheet date. Any change in fair value is recorded as non-operating, non-cash income or expense for each reporting period at each balance sheet date. The Company reassesses the classification of its derivative instruments at each balance sheet date. If the classification changes as a result of events during the period, the contract is reclassified as of the date of the event that caused the reclassification.
The Company assessed the classification of warrants (the “June 2016 Warrants”) issued, in connection with the Helocyte convertible note financing in June 2016, and determined that the June 2016 Warrants met the criteria for liability classification. Accordingly, the Company classified the June 2016 Warrants as a liability at their fair value and adjusts the instruments to fair value at each balance sheet date until the warrants are exercised or expired. Any change in the fair value of the June 2016 Warrants is recognized as “change in the fair value of warrant liabilities” in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Issuance of Debt and Equity
The Company issues complex financial instruments which include both equity and debt features. The Company analyzes each instrument under FASB ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 815”), Derivatives and Hedging and FASB ASC 470, Debt in order to establish whether such instruments include any embedded derivatives. 
Valuation of Warrants Related to NSC Note
In accordance with FASB No. ASC 815, the Company classified the fair value of the warrants granted in connection with the NSC Note transferred to Avenue effective February 2015 (the “Contingently Issuable Warrants”) as a derivative liability. The Company valued these Contingently Issuable Warrants using an option pricing model and used estimates for an expected dividend yield, a risk-free interest rate, and expected volatility together with management’s estimate of the probability of issuance of the Contingently Issuable Warrants (see Note 4 and Note 8). At each reporting period, as long as the Contingently Issuable Warrants were potentially issuable and there was a potential for an insufficient number of authorized shares available to settle the Contingently Issuable Warrants, these Contingently Issuable Warrants will be revalued, and any difference from the previous valuation date would be recognized as a change in fair value of Contingently Issuable Warrants in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Intangible Asset Licenses
The Company records the costs of acquired product distribution license rights as intangible asset-licenses in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Upon commencement of product sales, license rights associated with those sales are amortized over the expected life of the product into product expense in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. As of June 30, 2016, product sales related to certain of the Company’s intangible asset licenses commenced and the Company commenced amortization of those licenses (see Note 7).
Deferred Financing Costs
Financing costs incurred in connection with the promissory note for $15.0 million between Israel Discount Bank (“IDB”) and the National Securities Corporation’s NSC Biotech Venture Fund I LLC (the “NSC Note”) are now recorded as a reduction of principal balance due to ASU No. 2015-3 and are amortized over the appropriate expected life based on the term of the NSC Note using the effective interest rate method.
Revenue Recognition
The Company recognizes revenue for the performance of services or the shipment of products when each of the following four criteria is met: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (ii) products are delivered or services are rendered; (iii) the sales price is fixed or determinable; and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured.
Reimbursement Arrangements and Collaborative Arrangements
Checkpoint is reimbursed by TG Therapeutics, Inc. (“TGTX”), a related party, for TGTX’s share of the cost of the license and product research and development under their collaboration agreement. The gross amount of these reimbursed costs is reported as revenue in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations, since the Company acts as a principal, bears credit risk and may perform part of the services required in the transactions. Consistent with ASC 605-45, Revenue Recognition - Principal Agent Considerations, these reimbursements are treated as revenue by the Company. The actual expenses creating the reimbursements are reflected as expenses in the condensed consolidated financial statements.
The Company follows ASC 605-25, Revenue Recognition - Multiple-Element Arrangements (“ASC 605-25”) and ASC 808, Collaborative Arrangements, if applicable, to determine the recognition of revenue under its collaborative research agreements, options to enter into collaborative research agreements and development and commercialization agreements. The terms of these agreements generally contain multiple elements, or deliverables, which may include (i) grants of licenses, or options to obtain licenses, to the Company’s intellectual property, (ii) research and development services, (iii) drug product manufacturing, and/or (iv) participation on joint research and/or joint development committees. The payments we may receive under these arrangements typically include one or more of the following: non-refundable, up-front license fees; funding of research and/or development efforts; amounts due upon the achievement of specified objectives; and/or royalties on future product sales.
ASC 605-25 provides guidance relating to the separability of deliverables included in an arrangement into different units of accounting and the allocation of arrangement consideration to the units of accounting. The evaluation of multiple-element arrangements requires management to make judgments about (i) the identification of deliverables, (ii) whether such deliverables are separable from the other aspects of the contractual relationship, (iii) the estimated selling price of each deliverable, and (iv) the expected period of performance for each deliverable.
To determine the units of accounting under a multiple-element arrangement, management evaluates certain separation criteria, including whether the deliverables have stand-alone value, based on the relevant facts and circumstances for each arrangement. Management then estimates the selling price for each unit of accounting and allocates the arrangement consideration to each unit utilizing the relative selling price method. The allocated consideration for each unit of accounting is recognized over the related obligation period in accordance with the applicable revenue recognition criteria.
If there are deliverables in an arrangement that are not separable from other aspects of the contractual relationship, they are treated as a combined unit of accounting, with the allocated revenue for the combined unit recognized in a manner consistent with the revenue recognition applicable to the final deliverable in the combined unit. Payments received prior to satisfying the relevant revenue recognition criteria are recorded as deferred revenue in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and recognized as revenue in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations when the related revenue recognition criteria are met.
Revenue Recognition – Milestone Method
The Company follows ASC 605-28, Revenue Recognition—Milestone Method to evaluate whether each milestone under a license agreement is substantive. This evaluation includes an assessment of whether (i) the consideration is commensurate with either (a) the entity's performance to achieve the milestone, or (b) the enhancement of the value of the delivered item as a result of a specific outcome resulting from the entity's performance to achieve the milestone, (ii) the consideration relates solely to past performance and (iii) the consideration is reasonable relative to all of the deliverables and payment terms within the arrangement. In making this assessment the Company evaluates factors such as the preclinical, clinical, regulatory, commercial and other risks that must be overcome to achieve the respective milestone, the level of effort and investment required and whether the milestone consideration is reasonable relative to all deliverables and payment terms in the arrangement in making this assessment. If a substantive milestone is achieved, the Company would recognize revenue related to the milestone in its entirety in the period in which the milestone was achieved, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria were met.  Commercial milestones would be accounted for as royalties and recorded as revenue upon achievement of the milestone, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria were met. 
JMC Product Revenue
JMC sells its products directly to wholesalers and specialty pharmacies. JMC recognizes product sales revenue when delivery has occurred, collectability is reasonably assured, and the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, (in accordance with the specific contractual terms). Delivery occurs when title has transferred to the customer, and the customer has assumed the risks and rewards of ownership. Revenue from product sales is recognized net of provisions for estimated cash discounts, allowances, returns, rebates, chargebacks and distribution fees paid to certain of JMC’s wholesale customers. JMC establishes these provisions concurrently with the recognition of product sales revenue. JMC offers cash discounts for prompt payment and allowances are recorded at the time of sale.
JMC allows customers to return product within a specified period of time before and after its expiration date. Provisions for returns are estimated based on historical levels for like products from external data sources, taking into account additional available information such as historical return and exchange levels, and inventory levels in the wholesale distribution channel through its partners. Although the company has limited history with these product sales, the Company believes based on its current level of sales that it can make reasonable estimates of returns based upon external data sources. JMC reviews its methodology and adequacy of the provision for returns on a quarterly basis, adjusting for changes in assumptions, historical internal and external results and business practices, as necessary.
JMC’s co-promotion revenue for Dermasorb HC is based upon prescription volume over an established baseline. 
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities are expensed when the activity has been performed or when the goods have been received rather than when the payment is made. Upfront and milestone payments due to third parties that perform research and development services on the Company’s behalf will be expensed as services are rendered or when the milestone is achieved.
Research and development costs primarily consist of personnel related expenses, including salaries, benefits, travel, and other related expenses, stock-based compensation, payments made to third parties for license and milestone costs related to in-licensed products and technology, payments made to third party contract research organizations for preclinical and clinical studies, investigative sites for clinical trials, consultants, the cost of acquiring and manufacturing clinical trial materials, and costs associated with regulatory filings, laboratory costs and other supplies.
In accordance with ASC 730-10-25-1, Research and Development, costs incurred in obtaining technology licenses are charged to research and development expense if the technology licensed has not reached commercial feasibility and has no alternative future use. Certain licenses purchased by the Company require substantial completion of research and development and regulatory and marketing approval efforts in order to reach commercial feasibility and have no alternative future use.
The Company records accruals for contingencies and legal proceedings expected to be incurred in connection with a loss contingency when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated.
If a loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, the nature of the contingent liability, together with an estimate of the range of possible loss if determinable and material, would be disclosed.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company expenses stock-based compensation to employees over the requisite service period based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards and forfeiture rates. For stock-based compensation awards to non-employees, the Company remeasures the fair value of the non-employee awards at each reporting period prior to vesting and finally at the vesting date of the award. Changes in the estimated fair value of these non-employee awards are recognized as compensation expense in the period of change.
The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management’s best estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment.
Income Taxes
The Company records income taxes using the asset and liability method. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax effects attributable to temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective income tax bases, and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. The Company establishes a valuation allowance if management believes it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be recovered based on an evaluation of objective verifiable evidence. For tax positions that are more likely than not of being sustained upon audit, the Company recognizes the largest amount of the benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized. For tax positions that are not more likely than not of being sustained upon audit, the Company does not recognize any portion of the benefit.
Non-Controlling Interests
Non-controlling interests in consolidated entities represent the component of equity in consolidated entities held by third parties. Any change in ownership of a subsidiary while the controlling financial interest is retained is accounted for as an equity transaction between the controlling and non-controlling interests (see Note 10).
Comprehensive Loss
The Company’s comprehensive loss is equal to its net loss for all periods presented.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements 
In January 2016, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Liabilities. ASU No. 2016-01 requires several targeted changes including that equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting, or those that result in consolidation of the investee) be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. The new guidance also changes certain disclosure requirements and other aspects of current U.S. GAAP. Amendments are to be applied as a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. ASU No. 2016-01 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is not permitted with the exception of certain targeted provisions. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU No. 2016-01 on the condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (“ASU No. 2016-02”). ASU No. 2016-02 requires an entity to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on its balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. Lessees and lessors are required to disclose qualitative and quantitative information about leasing arrangements to enable a user of the financial statements to assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. ASU No. 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU No. 2016-02 on the condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Principal versus Agent Considerations (“ASU No. 2016-08”). The purpose of ASU No. 2016-08 is to clarify the implementation of guidance on principal versus agent considerations. The amendments in ASU No. 2016-08 are effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU No. 2016-08 on the condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718), Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU No. 2016-09”). Under ASU 2016-09, companies will no longer record excess tax benefits and certain tax deficiencies in additional paid-in capital (“APIC”). Instead, they will record all excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies as income tax expense or benefit in the income statement and the APIC pools will be eliminated. In addition, ASU No. 2016-09 eliminates the requirement that excess tax benefits be realized before companies can recognize them. ASU No. 2016-09 also requires companies to present excess tax benefits as an operating activity on the statement of cash flows rather than as a financing activity. Furthermore, ASU No. 2016-09 will increase the amount an employer can withhold to cover income taxes on awards and still qualify for the exception to liability classification for shares used to satisfy the employer’s statutory income tax withholding obligation. An employer with a statutory income tax withholding obligation will now be allowed to withhold shares with a fair value up to the amount of taxes owed using the maximum statutory tax rate in the employee’s applicable jurisdiction(s). ASU No. 2016-09 requires a company to classify the cash paid to a tax authority when shares are withheld to satisfy its statutory income tax withholding obligation as a financing activity on the statement of cash flows. Under current GAAP, it was not specified how these cash flows should be classified. In addition, companies will now have to elect whether to account for forfeitures on share-based payments by (1) recognizing forfeitures of awards as they occur or (2) estimating the number of awards expected to be forfeited and adjusting the estimate when it is likely to change, as is currently required. These aspects of ASU No. 2016-09 are effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, with early adoption permitted provided that all of the guidance is adopted in the same period. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU No. 2016-09 on the condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-10, Revenue from Contracts with Customer (“ASU No. 2016-10”). The new guidance is an update to ASC No. 606 and provides clarity on identifying performance obligations and licensing implementation. For public companies, ASU No. 2016-10 is effective for annual periods, including interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2016. The Company does not expect ASU No. 2016-10 to have a material effect on the condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU No. 2016-13”). ASU No. 2016-13 requires that expected credit losses relating to financial assets be measured on an amortized cost basis and that available-for-sale debt securities be recorded through an allowance for credit losses. ASU No. 2016-13 limits the amount of credit losses to be recognized for available-for-sale debt securities to the amount by which carrying value exceeds fair value and also requires the reversal of previously recognized credit losses if fair value increases. The new standard will be effective on January 1, 2020. Early adoption of ASU No. 2016-13 will be available on January 1, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU No. 2016-13 will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.