Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2015
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, the unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments necessary for the fair statement of the balances and results for the periods presented. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the Company’s annual financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted. These condensed consolidated financial statement results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full fiscal year or any future period.
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures have been prepared with the presumption that users of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have read or have access to the audited consolidated financial statements for the preceding fiscal year. Accordingly, these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s Form 10-K, which was filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 16, 2015 and amended on April 30, 2015,  from which the Company derived the balance sheet data at December 31, 2014.
The Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries: Innmune Limited, Coronado SO, Cyprium Therapeutics, Inc., Escala, JMC, CB Securities Corporation, Avenue, Checkpoint, Mustang and Helocyte. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
The preparation of the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period.
Use of Estimates
The Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include certain amounts that are based on management’s best estimates and judgments. The Company’s significant estimates include, but are not limited to, useful lives assigned to long-lived assets, fair value of stock options and warrants, stock-based compensation, common stock issued to acquire licenses, investments, accrued expenses, provisions for income taxes and contingencies. Due to the uncertainty inherent in such estimates, actual results may differ from these estimates.
The Company reclassified debt issuance costs from other assets to notes payable, long-term, net on the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets for all periods presented pursuant to the early adoption of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2015-03 - Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs.
Restricted Cash
The Company records cash held in trust or pledged to secure certain debt obligations as restricted cash. As of September 30, 2015, the Company has $14.6 million of restricted cash securing a note payable of $14.0 million and a pledge to secure a letter of credit in connection with a lease of $0.6 million.
Fair Value Measurement
The Company follows accounting guidance on fair value measurements for financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis. Under the accounting guidance, fair value is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability.
The accounting guidance requires fair value measurements be classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2:  Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices for similar assets or liabilities that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.
Level 3:  Unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity and that are financial instruments whose values are determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques, as well as instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant judgment or estimation.
The fair value hierarchy also requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires management to make judgments and consider factors specific to the asset or liability.
Certain of the Company’s financial instruments are not measured at fair value on a recurring basis, but are recorded at amounts that approximate their fair value due to their liquid or short-term nature, such as accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities. The carrying value of the amount owed to Ovamed GmbH (“Ovamed”) upon the acquisition of certain manufacturing rights in December 2012 under the amendment to the sublicense agreement with Ovamed included in current liabilities in the September 30, 2015 unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet and both current liabilities and long-term liabilities in the December 31, 2014 consolidated balance sheet, has been recorded at its net present value, which approximates its fair value (see Note 10).
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets, including property and equipment, for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable. Factors that the Company considers in deciding when to perform an impairment review include significant underperformance of the business in relation to expectations, significant negative industry or economic trends, and significant changes or planned changes in the use of the assets. If an impairment review is performed to evaluate a long-lived asset for recoverability, the Company compares forecasts of undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the long-lived asset to its carrying value.
An impairment loss would be recognized when estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of an asset are less than its carrying amount. The impairment loss would be based on the excess of the carrying value of the impaired asset over its fair value, determined based on discounted cash flows. During the nine month period ended September 30, 2014, in relation to the abandonment of its lease in Woburn, MA, the Company recorded an impairment loss of $0.4 million as a result of the write-off of its construction in progress long-lived asset.
Investments at Fair Value
The Company elected the fair value option for its investment in a third-party company developing a laser device to treat migraine headaches, and its investment in CB Pharma Acquisition Corp. (“CB Pharma”). As of September 30, 2015, the fair value of these investments approximate $4.1 million (see Note 11).
While the Company believes its valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different estimate of fair value at the reporting date.
The decision to elect the fair value option, which is irrevocable once elected, is determined on an instrument by instrument basis and applied to an entire instrument. The net gains or losses, if any, on an investment for which the fair value option has been elected, are recognized as a change in fair value of investments in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Revenue Recognition
Reimbursement Arrangements
The Company, via the collaboration agreement between Checkpoint and TGTX, is reimbursed by TGTX for its share of the cost of the license and future milestone payments that are payable to Dana-Farber pursuant to the license agreement (for further discussion, see Note 1). The gross amount of these reimbursed costs are reported as revenue in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations. The Company acts as a principal (as the Company is responsible for designing the future clinical development pathway), bears credit risk and may perform part of the services required in the transactions. Consistent with ASC 605-45, Revenue Recognition – Principal Agent Considerations, these reimbursements are treated as revenue to the Company. The actual expenses creating the reimbursements are reflected as research and development – licenses acquired.
Collaborative Arrangements
The Company recognizes revenue for the performance of services or the shipment of products when each of the following four criteria is met: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (ii) products are delivered or as services are rendered; (iii) the sales price is fixed or determinable; and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured.
The Company follows ASC 605-25, Revenue Recognition – Multiple-Element Arrangements and ASC 808, Collaborative Arrangements, if applicable, to determine the recognition of revenue under its collaborative research, development and commercialization agreements. The terms of these agreements generally contain multiple elements, or deliverables, which may include (i) grants of licenses, or options to obtain licenses, to our intellectual property, (ii) research and development services, (iii) drug product manufacturing, and/or (iv) participation on joint research and/or joint development committees. The payments we may receive under these arrangements typically include one or more of the following: non-refundable, up-front license fees; option exercise fees; funding of research and/or development efforts; amounts due upon the achievement of specified objectives; and/or royalties on future product sales.
ASC 605-25 provides guidance relating to the separability of deliverables included in an arrangement into different units of accounting and the allocation of arrangement consideration to the units of accounting. The evaluation of multiple-element arrangements requires management to make judgments about (i) the identification of deliverables, (ii) whether such deliverables are separable from the other aspects of the contractual relationship, (iii) the estimated selling price of each deliverable, and (iv) the expected period of performance for each deliverable.
To determine the units of accounting under a multiple-element arrangement, management evaluates certain separation criteria, including whether the deliverables have stand-alone value, based on the relevant facts and circumstances for each arrangement. Management then estimates the selling price for each unit of accounting and allocates the arrangement consideration to each unit utilizing the relative selling price method. The allocated consideration for each unit of accounting is recognized over the related obligation period in accordance with the applicable revenue recognition criteria.
If there are deliverables in an arrangement that are not separable from other aspects of the contractual relationship, they are treated as a combined unit of accounting, with the allocated revenue for the combined unit recognized in a manner consistent with the revenue recognition applicable to the final deliverable in the combined unit. Payments received prior to satisfying the relevant revenue recognition criteria are recorded as deferred revenue in the condensed consolidated balance sheets and recognized as revenue in the condensed consolidated statements of operations when the related revenue recognition criteria are met. See Note 4 for a description of the collaborative arrangements. 
Intangible Asset License
The Company records the costs of acquired product license rights as intangible asset licenses in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Upon commencement of product sales, license rights will be amortized over the expected life of the product into product expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. As of September 30, 2015, product sales of the Company’s intangible asset license had not yet commenced (see Note 6).
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company expenses stock-based compensation to employees over the requisite service period based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards and forfeiture rates. For stock-based compensation awards to non-employees, the Company remeasures the fair value of the unvested non-employee awards at each reporting period prior to vesting and finally at the vesting date of the award. Changes in the estimated fair value of these non-employee awards are recognized as compensation expense in the period of change.
The Company estimates the fair value of stock options grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and the assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management’s best estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment.
Income Taxes
The Company records income taxes using the asset and liability method. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax effects attributable to temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective income tax bases, and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. The Company establishes a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be recovered based on an evaluation of objective verifiable evidence. For tax positions that are more likely than not of being sustained upon audit, the Company recognizes the largest amount of the benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized. For tax positions that are not more likely than not of being sustained upon audit, the Company does not recognize any portion of the benefit.
Non-Controlling Interests
Non-controlling interests in consolidated entities represent the component of equity in consolidated entities held by third parties. Any change in ownership of a subsidiary while the controlling financial interest is retained is accounted for as an equity transaction between the controlling and non-controlling interests (see Note 5).
Comprehensive Loss
The Company’s comprehensive loss is equal to its net loss for all periods presented.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, an updated standard on revenue recognition. ASU 2014-09 provides enhancements to the quality and consistency of how revenue is reported by companies while also improving comparability in the financial statements of companies reporting using International Financial Reporting Standards or GAAP. The main purpose of the new standard is for companies to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in amounts that reflect the consideration to which a company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The new standard also will result in enhanced disclosures about revenue, provide guidance for transactions that were not previously addressed comprehensively and improve guidance for multiple-element arrangements. In July 2015, the FASB voted to approve a one-year deferral of the effective date of ASU 2014-09, which will be effective for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018 and may be applied on a full retrospective or modified retrospective approach. The Company is evaluating the impact of implementation and transition approach of this standard on its financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements-Going Concern, which defines management's responsibility to assess an entity's ability to continue as a going concern, and to provide related footnote disclosures if there is substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. ASU No. 2014-15 is effective for annual reporting periods ending after December 15, 2016, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU No. 2014-15 and its related disclosures.
In January 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-01, Income Statement – Extraordinary and Unusual Items, which eliminates from GAAP the concept of extraordinary items. If an event or transaction meets the criteria for extraordinary classification, it is segregated from the results of ordinary operations and is shown as a separate item in the income statement, net of tax. ASU 2015-01 is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2015. Early adoption is permitted provided that the guidance is applied from the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The Company is currently assessing the adoption and impact of this ASU, however, the Company does not anticipate that adoption of ASU 2015-01 will impact the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations.
In the first quarter of 2015, the Company adopted ASU No. 2014-08, Reporting Discontinued Operations and Disclosures of Disposals of Components of an Entity, issued by the FASB. ASU No. 2014-08 changes the definition of a discontinued operation to include only those disposals of components of an entity that represent a strategic shift that has (or will have) a major effect on an entity's operations and financial results (e.g., a disposal of a major geographical area, a major line of business, a major equity method investment or other major parts of an entity). The Company’s adoption of ASU No. 2014-08 did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs, which requires debt issuance costs to be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying value of the associated debt liability, consistent with the presentation of a debt discount. ASU No. 2015-03 is effective for the interim and annual periods ending after December 15, 2015, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted ASU No. 2015-03 and such adoption resulted in debt issuance costs for all periods presented to be reclassified into notes payable, long-term, net.
In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-15, Interest - Imputation of Interest, which clarifies the treatment of debt issuance costs from line-of-credit arrangements after the adoption of ASU No. 2015-03. In particular, ASU No. 2015-15 clarifies that the SEC staff would not object to an entity deferring and presenting debt issuance costs related to a line-of-credit arrangement as an asset and subsequently amortizing the deferred debt issuance costs ratably over the term of such arrangement, regardless of whether there are any outstanding borrowings on the line-of-credit arrangement. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU No. 2015-15 and believes its adoption will not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations.